Survivors guilt, emotional neglect, abuse, each a traumatic event in itself, can leave a person traumatised with feelings of guilt and shame, with a feeling of abandonment and alone in the world, all trust lost. There may be a disconnect from others and low self-esteem.

Learning to trust again, a basic foundation of securing relationships and connections with caring people is the aim of the therapist and client relationship. The therapist will empower the client to deal with past/present trauma and validate their experience.